Accepted Papers - TESA’20

Articles (Abstracts, Short and Full Papers)



Article Title: Combined natural and radiative heat transfer of a computational fluid dynamic model to predict internal climatic conditions of a house for thermal comfort.

Author(s): Christopher Knutsen, Tunde Bello-Ochende.

Abstract
The internal thermal climate of a house is directly affected by how the building envelope (walls, windows and roof) are designed to suit environment it is exposed to. This paper investigates how the thermal behaviour inside of a simple house reacts to changes made to the building envelope with the objective to predict how these changes will affect human thermal comfort when optimising the design of said house. A three dimensional numerical model was created using computational fluid dynamic code (Ansys Fluent) to solve the governing equations that describe the thermal properties inside of a simple house. The geometries of the model were altered to simulate changes in the building envelope design to determine how these changes affect the internal thermal climate for both summer and winter environmental conditions. Changes that were made to the building envelope geometry included; thickness of the walls, size of the windows, and emissivity constants of the walls and window glazing. Results showed that there is a substantial difference in indoor temperatures, and heating and cooling patterns, between summer and winter environment conditions. The thickness of the walls and size of the windows had a minimal effect on internal climate. It was found that the emissivity of the walls and window glazing had a significant effect on the internal climate conditions, where lowering the emissivity allowed for more stable thermal conditions within the human comfort range.
Keywords
Computational Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Building Envelope, Thermal Comfort, Buildings.
Corresponding author Biography
Chris is a young and aspiring mechanical engineer researching in the field of heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics. Having completed his BSC Eng at the University of Cape Town he is completing an MSC Eng. The MSc dissertation involves the thermal analysis of a simple house to understand the effect of the building envelope (walls, windows, etc) on the internal climate. Chris is also a volunteer firefighter as part of the Volunteer Wildfire Services.

Tunde Bello-Ochende is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. His research focuses on the theoretical, experimental and numerical optimization of heat transfer devices from macro to micro scales. These include compact heat exchanger, micro-channel heat sink, and heat transfer augmentation using micro-fins.

His recent works are in the areas of sustainable/renewable energy (solar, geothermal and fuel cells), Sterling Engines and two-phase flow. He is the author and co-author of over 140 papers in referred journals and conference proceedings. He  has successfully supervised over 24 postgraduate students (M and D students). Professor Bello-Ochende is a registered professional engineer of the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). He is also a member of America Society of Mechanical Engineer (MASME).

Professor Bello-Ochende received his Bachelor’s, master’s degree from the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (1995, 1999) and doctorate from Duke University, USA (December 2004), all in Mechanical Engineering

Corresponding Author 



Article Title: Optimal Control Method of an Air-powered Vehicle System for Energy Saving Based on Expansion Energy Utilization.

Author(s): Yixuan Wang, Yan Shi, Shuai Ren, Liman Yang, Dongkai Shen

Abstract
In order to achieve the torque requirement of the air-powered vehicle, hydro-pneumatic transformer (short for HP transformer), which can increase the output pressure of the fluid driven machinery, is widely applied in the power system of the vehicle. However, the exhaust process of the pneumatic part causes a huge loss of energy which is mainly the compressed energy in the high pressure air. The wasted compression energy can be applied in the form of expansion energy the moment before the power switch, while the dynamic properties of the vehicle will be affected. This paper designs the power system of the air-powered vehicle, and the proposed optimal control method based on the expansion energy utilization can promote the power efficiency of the whole system so as to achieve energy saving. Experimental station is built to demonstrate the mathematical model. Dynamic characteristics of the power system are analyzed, and the advantage of the expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer (short for EEUHP transformer) is shown by comparing with the original design. What’s more, the working dynamic characteristics of the power system are studied by researching the influence of several key structure parameters. The researching results can be concluded that, firstly, the mathematical model of the power system with EEUHP transformer is proved to be effective; secondly, EEUHP transformer can deeply increase the power efficiency comparing with the original one; thirdly, considering both the output power and system efficiency, appropriate factor of the ratio can be 5.5~7, and aperture can be 2.5~3.0mm; lastly, the special magnetic ring structure can apparently promote the system dynamic characteristic, which can make sure the efficiency mainly above 30%. This study can be referred to in the design of the power system of sustainable energy vehicle and the optimization of its dynamic characteristics.
Keywords
sustainable energy vehicle; energy saving; hydropneumatic transformer; hydraulic motor; expansion energy utilization.
Corresponding author Biography
Yixuan Wang received the P.H.D degree from School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University in 2019. He is currently carrying on teaching and research work in Beihang University. His research interests include fluid energy, fuel and power systems of UAV, fluid measurement and control system.

Corresponding Author 


Article Title: Energy efficiency evaluation and diagnosis in large-scale petrochemical industry: a novel decision fusion mechanism.

Author(s): Li Zhu, Cheng Shao.

Abstract
In the large-scale petrochemical industry, the energy conversion and management of the industrial production plays a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. The accurate and reliable energy efficiency evaluation and diagnosis are the effective means and preconditions for improving and optimizing the production process to achieve both environmental and economic goals.  In fact, even if the available methods in literature have made an improvement in energy efficiency management, the ideal assumption that the modeling data should be of high volume and good quality is the prerequisite of the application in industrial processes. However, in the practical petrochemical environment, it is difficult to ensure the ideal condition, so the reliability of the energy efficiency management results would be reduced. There are three issues should be addressed, including how to select the informative data from the historical industrial database, how to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the energy efficiency management results and how to analyze the reasons and provide the improvement stratege when the energy efficiency is low. To overcome these limitations, a novel energy efficiency decision fusion mechanism integrated with the energy efficiency evaluation and diagnosis is proposed in this paper. To meet the requirements of small sample and uncertain quality, an improved partial least squares analysis is proposed to construct the nonlinear evaluation model and indicated the reliability of the evaluation model; to select the appropriate sampling data from the industrial database, the active learning method is presented to enhance the reliability of the evaluation model; to diagnosis the reason and provide the improvement stratege when energy efficiency is lower than the preset benchmark, the entire large-scale plant-wide process is decomposed into blocks and Bayesian network are constructed for connecting different blocks, and a Bayesian decision fusion mechanism is established for analyzing the equipment, unit process and global production process. Based on the constructed models, not only are the accurate energy efficiency evaluation results calculated, but the energy efficiency tendency is also predicted. In addition, based on the Bayesian fusion method, the recommended improvement guide for the petrochemical production is provided. The effectiveness and practicality of the proposed energy efficiency decision fusion mechanism are demonstrated through a practical ethylene production process, respectively. The energy efficiency evaluation and diagnosis results are acquired to decrease the energy consumption and improve the energy efficiency level in the large-scale petrochemical industry.
Keywords
Energy efficiency, evaluation, diagnosis, active learning, Bayesian decision, petrochemical industry.
Corresponding author Biography

Li ZHU received the B.Eng. degree in automation from the Department of Control Science and Engineering in Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, in 2009, and the Ph.D. degrees in control science and engineering from the Department of Control Science and Engineering in Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in 2014.

He has been an Assistant Professor with the College of Control Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, since 2014. He was a Research Scholar with the Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, from December 2016 to July 2018. His research interests include data-based process modeling, monitoring, evaluation, diagnosis and optimizations.

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Article Title: The harm of high pressure CO2 release from the industry-scale pipeline.

Author(s): Qi Cao, Xingqing Yan, Jianliang Yu, Shaoyun Chen.

Abstract
The global warming caused by the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration has received more and more attention. Currently, Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) is considered to the most potential technology to alleviate global warming. CO2 pipeline transportation is essential part of CCUS and safety of CO2 pipeline has attracted more and more attention. A 258 m long and 233 mm inner diameter pipeline was built to investigate the characteristics of CO2 during the release. Several kinds of sensors were used to measure temperature, pressure and concentration of CO2 during the release respectively. There were three different orifices (50 mm, 100 mm and Full-Bore Rupture) installed at the end of pipeline to achieve CO2 release from different orifice. This paper presents the recoil force and overpressure amplitude when the CO2 released. According to the maize change near the release field the influence of CO2 release to the plant has been discussed.
Keywords
CCUS; CO2 pipeline release; recoil force; overpressure amplitude.
Corresponding author Biography
Dr. Jianliang Yu is a professor and a doctoral supervisor at Dalian University of Technology. He serves as the general manager of Dalian Ligong Safety Equipment CO., Ltd, the deputy director of the Scientific and Technical Research and Development Platform for Petrochemical Explosion Mechanism and Safety Relief Technology of SAWS, a member of China Mechanical Engineering Society Pressure Vessel Branch, and a member of Nation Technical Committee for Standardization of Safety Relief Device.  He participated in the compilation of several national standards and regulations. Dr. Yu received a number of prestigious awards, including a nation science and technology reward and three science and technology rewards of provincial and ministerial level. His research field includes 1) Analysis and inversion of fire and explosion accidents of typical containers and equipment; 2) Special equipment failure analysis and safety evaluation technology; 3)Prevention technology and product development  of uncontrollable overpressure mechanism of industrial media; 4) Study on key safety technologies for CO2 long distance transportation pipeline based on CCUS technology. He built an industrial-scale experimental apparatus to study CO2 pipeline transportation safety and CO2 leakage and dispersion. The apparatus has received great attention from domestic and abroad.  Based on this apparatus, several CO2 pipeline safety projects have been performed, including CO2QUEST and CO2PipeHaz from the EU 7th Framework Programme, and the commissioned development projects from SINOPEC Petroleum Engineering Corporation and Xi’an Changqing Technology Engineering Co. Ltd. The results provide reference for design and safety estimation of CO2 pipeline transportation.

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Article Title: Discovery of Promising Geothermal Sites Along the Eastern Coast of the Gulf of Suez, South Sinai, Egypt (A Case Study).

Author(s): El-Arabi H. Shendi, Mona F. Kaiser, Mohamed I. Abdel Fattah and Islam N. El-Nekhiely.

Abstract
Structural environment along the Gulf of Suez coastal zones is the most significant critereas for geothermal water conditions. Enormous hot springs were noticed along its eastern and western sides. This research aims at to specify the most appropriate critereas for the actual geothermal sites, besides discovering other promising selective areas based on these critereas. Field investigations were integratd with the results of geophysics, remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques. Aero-magnetic, Bouguer gravity and seismic reflection data indicated that the concerned sites are controlled by NE-SW and NW-SE deep seated regional faults forming graben-horest structures. It was noticed that shallow uplifted basement blocks act as a source of heat for the up-flow groundwater. Consequently, the major faults act as conduits for lateral and vertical circulation of the thermal groundwater, producing natural hot springs in Hammam Faroun, Ayoun Mousa and Hammam Mousa. Both land surface temperatures, extracted from thermal landsat satellite images, and the results of  temperature gradient and the heat flow maps confirmed the geological and structural analyses. The mean geothermal gradient is 31 C°/km with abnormal values reaching to more than 90 C°/km at some sites. The heat flow values are ranging from 17 to 141 mW/m2 with abnormal values reaching to 200 mW/m2 in some sites; including Ras Matarma, Abu Durba and El-Tor city.
Keywords
Geothermal energy; Seismic interpreation; GIS; Gravity and Magnetic methods; Heat flow; Gulf of Suez.
Corresponding author Biography
Name: Mona Fouad Mohamed Kaiser
Name (Abbreviated): M.F. Kaiser
Position: Professor in: Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Environmental Hazards Assessment
Affiliation: Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Corresponding Author 



Article Title: Waste heat valorization in meat industry: evaluation and technoeconomic assessment of an industrial case.

Author(s): Pedro L. Cruz, Helena Monteiro, Guilherme Pereira, Muriel Iten.

Abstract

Industrial sector is responsible of more than one third of the global energy consumption, with around 70% of it related to thermal processes, which results in a considerable amount of waste heat. Waste heat is the thermal energy unused and given to the surrounding environment of a system. Despite its lower exergy, waste heat has the potential to be used as an energy source. Hence, waste heat recovery is gaining attention in several sectors of industry, given its potential to reduce current industrial energy consumption without implying large investment costs.

In this sense, the food & beverage industrial sector, specially meat and processed meat industry, encompasses several thermal processes which generate significant waste heat streams. Although some processes such as scalding, pasteurization, smoking or cooking are significant energy consumers, great part of waste heat in meat industry is produced along in cooling, refrigeration and freezing systems. These are commonly based on a mechanical vapor-compression cycle, which requires an external cooling after compression –generally provided by dry coolers or cooling towers– to condense the working fluid or refrigerant. Compression step is a non-isentropic operation, which involves the refrigerant superheating over saturation conditions. Thus, cooling towers or dry coolers have also to drive the refrigerant’s temperature to dew conditions prior to condensation, which increases their energy consumption and means a rejection of waste heat that may be useful somewhere.

In this work, we analyze the refrigeration system of an actual meat industry in Portugal, evaluating its waste heat potential and assessing the technoeconomic feasibility of its valorization within the whole process. The refrigeration system consists on an ammonia-based cascade cycle, providing cold requirements to maintain freezing rooms at -30ºC and refrigeration rooms at 0-2ºC, while also cooling a glycol-water stream to keep working rooms at 10ºC. This cycle is simulated according to real data obtained from the industrial process and considering different seasons of the year, in which the cycle works at different pressures for the cooling tower to reach enough temperature difference with outside conditions. A heat recovery from the superheated ammonia vapor after compression is considered to produce hot water, also required within the industry.

The results show that the installation of a heat exchanger recovering excess heat from the compression allows to produce great part of hot water for the industrial process, achieving the whole production in summer months, when cycle working pressure is higher. Thus, it involves interesting economic savings, not only from the reduction of the cooling tower capacity and performance, but also related to the natural gas consumption, which is reduced from 40% to 90% depending on the month. Moreover, the investment cost for the implementation of this measure would imply a payback time of less than two years, which shows the feasibility and advantages of waste heat valorization.

Keywords
Waste heat; heat recovery; refrigeration; meat industry.
Corresponding author Biography
Dr. Pedro L. Cruz is a researcher of the Low Carbon & Resource Efficiency group at the R&Di unit of the ISQ (Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Portugal). His field of expertise and current research is focused on waste heat valorisation solutions, energy efficiency in industry, process design, modelling, simulation and sustainability assessments, mainly oriented to chemical and energy systems. Concerning his background, Pedro L. is Chemical Engineer (2013, Rey Juan Carlos University), owns a Master’s degree on Renewable Energy, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen (2014, Menéndez Pelayo International University) and obtained his PhD under the Doctoral Program in Industrial Technologies (2018, Rey Juan Carlos University) with the thesis entitled "Modelling, simulation and analysis of the coprocessing of biomass-based feedstocks in crude oil refineries”. He has participated in several research projects and count with numerous contributions to international conferences, journal articles and a book chapter..

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Article Title: Use of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey : A Case Study of Wind Power Plant of Tokat Special Provincial Administration.

Author(s): Aşina Kübra ASLAN, Aslı DOKUCU, Şefik TAŞ, Arzuhan Burcu GÜLTEKİN, Alperen KERKÜKLÜ and M. Alaattin NALCIOĞLU.

Abstract
In this study, it is aimed to raise public awareness about renewable energy sources in Turkey and to shed light on public institutions and private sector investors working on this issue. In this context, the purpose of the study is to determine the potential of wind energy, which is one of the renewable energy sources in Turkey and to evaluate the electricity production of the wind power plant of Tokat Special Provincial Administration in Tokat Province. In accordance with the aim of study, literature review is made with respect to the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey, and the development of wind energy in Turkey is studied in the historical process. The current state of the wind energy and its future potentials are researched. The potential of wind energy in Tokat province is determined and the possible advantages and disadvantages of wind energy use in terms of electricity production in this province is discussed.
Keywords
Tokat, Renewable energy, wind energy, wind energy potential.
Corresponding author Biography

Aşina Kübra ASLAN-BIOGRAPHY

 

She was born in 1985 in Niksar, Tokat,Turkey. She completed her undergraduate degree in Geological Engineering Department at Cumhuriyet University in 2008. She currently works at Real Estate Development and Management Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ankara University. She is working as a Geological Engineer at Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. She is married and has twins.

Corresponding Author 



Article Title: Effects of heat transfer on characteristics of thermionic energy converter.

Author(s): Zhuweiwei and Shendekui.

Abstract
Photon enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) is a new concept in solar energy conversion, combining thermal and photovoltaic carrier excitations with thermionic emission. A solar-power-driven thermionic energy converter operates by illuminating the solar light condensed by a large-scale Fresnel lens to convert heat energy into electrical energy. By enhancing the efficiency of converting solar radiation into the emitter internal energy, the output power and efficiency of the thermionic energy converter can be greatly improved. In this study, using numerical simulations, the effects of emitter temperature and output characteristics on a thermionic energy converter were investigated. The results showed that the higher rate of the heating power represented the higher temperature of an emitter, as well as output current density, and efficiency. In addition, by reducing the diameter of a collector and thermal conductivity of insulation materials, or increasing the diameter of emitter, the temperature of emitter, output current density, and efficiency could be notably improved. It is also worth mentioning that the main factor that affected the emitter temperature in the process of heat transfer was heat conduction between solids. In conclusion, adequate illumination, reasonable size of collector and emitter, as well as appropriate insulation measurements could efficiently improve the output characteristics of thermionic energy converter.
Keywords
solar thermionic energy converter, numerical simulation, temperature of emitter, output characteristics of TEC, efficiency.
Corresponding author Biography
Zhuweiwei, Master's degree in Southeast University from 2015 to 2018, now is a doctoral Student in Southeast University, mainly engaged in thermoelectric conversion research.

Corresponding Author 



Article Title: Effects of rotating circular cylinder and two-phase nanofluid model on mixed convection in a cavity with heated wavy bottom wall.

Author(s): Ali J. Chamkha, Ammar I. Alsabery, Ishak Hashim.

Abstract
The current numerical work investigated the effects of rotating circular cylinder and two-phase nanofluid model on mixed convection heat transfer in a square cavity with heated wavy bottom wall using the finite element method. A wavy isothermal heater is placed on the bottom wavy surface of the cavity while the left and right vertical surfaces are maintained at fixed cold temperatures. The horizontal top wall is kept adiabatic. The wavy cavity is filled with water-based nanofluids with alumina nanoparticles. The chosen governing parameters of the present study are Richardson number, nanoparticle volume fraction and number of undulations on the stream function, temperature and concentrations of nanoparticles, as well as the local and average Nusselt numbers have been described. It has been found that the wavy shape of the bottom heater, the characteristics of internal rotating cylinder and the properties of nanofluid are very good control parameters for the heat transfer rate and the fluid flow rate.
Keywords
Mixed convection, Two-phase nanofluid model, Lid-driven cavity, Thermophoresis and Brownian, Solid rotating cylinder, Wavy bottom wall.
Corresponding author Biography
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Corresponding Author 



Article Title: The Numerical Analysis of Combustion Performance of Cavity Based Scramjet Combustor with Variation in Angle of Attack.

Author(s): Kumari Ambe Verma, Krishna Murari Pandey, Kaushal Kumar Sharma.

Abstract
Numerical analysis has been performed to get improved performance of scramjet combustion by means of wall fuel injection system. Strut based combustor is used to validate the reacting flow characteristics and similar geometry has been chosen to perform the further investigation. Pressure at the wall of the combustor has been analysed with experimental data it is observed that the analysis is found to be in good agreement with open excess literature data. Steady state, two dimensional, scramjet combustor has been chosen to complete the numerical convergence through ANSYS Fluent code. ICEM CFD is utilized to accomplish the desired meshing. Grid independence analysis has been done by comparing three different element sizes. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation-two equation k-epsilon has been utilized to reach the convergence at lower computational cost. Finite rate eddy-dissipation based Species transport model has been opted to solve the chemical kinetics of hydrogen and air. Hydrogen as fuel has been injected to conduct the simulation at sonic speed with same pressure as inlet with 250K temperature. Incoming boundary condition of free-stream air has been optimized to get the high percentage of combustion efficiency. Further enhancement of combustion performance, angle variation of the incoming air has been estimated. To change the angle of attack of incoming air, Modified isolator is added ahead of the combustor with constant length. It is observed that behaviour of shock waves and flow properties are dependent on the angle of attack. Ignition delay can also be observed at the downstream. Constant area fuel injector at the wall is selected for fuel injection. Comparative observation has been analysed with monitoring combustion efficiency graph.
Keywords
Angle of attack, Modified isolator, Supersonic Combustor, Flow field characteristic.
Corresponding author Biography
Kumari Ambe Verma is Ph.D research scholar at the Department of Mechanical Engineering in National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India from 2017. She has completed her Master of Technology in 2017 from Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. She has published 7 papers. Her research interest areas are the following: Combustion, High Speed Flows, Heat Transfer, Internal Combustion Engines, CFD based Numerical Simulations and Composite Materials.

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Article Title: Research of influence of heat treatment in salt furnaces-baths on operational properties of hard alloys of VK and TK group.

Author(s): Bogoduhov S. I., Kozik E. S., Shvidenko E. B..

Abstract

Performance characteristics of hard-alloy tools are largely depends on the structure. The hard-alloy tool structure can be influenced by various factors. The main factors influencing the structure and properties of hard alloys at heat treatment are ВаCl2 salt bath deoxidation degree, heating temperature, holding time, rate of cooling and cooling medium, temperatures and holding time. Oxidation at temperatures more than 500-600оС and relatively low thermal conductivity of λ = 27.214 W/(m×K) are characteristic for hard alloys under heating.

In this regard, it became necessary to study the salt baths deoxidation processes occurred in the course of heat treatment. Insufficient study of hard alloy heat treatment processes is associated with peculiarity of their structure and large assortment, difficulty of setting heat treatment modes.

Research of hard alloy sample heating with the subsequent air cooling (normalization) was carried out in a salt baths in thermal area of tool shop.

X-ray diffraction analysis was performed by Williamson-Hall method. In our experiments, coherent scattering regions size and WC phase micro-distortions magnitude were defined using MD-10 microdiffractometer. It was found out that phase structure of hard alloys is not change as a result of heat treatment. There are only reflections from carbide phase planes in the diffraction pattern. A quantitative analysis of diffraction reflection broadening using Williamson-Hall method showed that size of the coherent scattering regions for VK8 and T14K8 hard alloys subjected to hardening procedure is more than for sintered alloys.

Relevance of the study is due to the fact that heat treatment involved heating in salt baths can be a promising method of improving mechanical and operational properties of hard alloys. This approach ensures necessary strength and performance characteristics of hard alloys without significant economic expenses.

The purpose of this paper is to define effect of ВаCl2 salt bath deoxidation degree on physical and mechanical properties of VK8 and T14K8 hard alloys.

Keywords
salt baths, deoxidation of salt baths, heat treatment, hardening, tempering, hardness, bending strength.
Corresponding author Biography

Bogodukhov S.I., born in 1939, Russian, citizen of the Russian Federation. Corresponding Member of the Academy of Engineering Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Bogodukhov Stanislav Ivanovich has been working at Orenburg State University since 1965. From 1990 to November 2015, Bogodukhov S.I. led the department of "Materials Science and Materials Technology" OSU.

Scientific activity Bogodukhova S.I. devoted to the research and development of technological processes for the production of powder materials and products by powder metallurgy. Author and co-author of over 350 scientific, educational and methodological.

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Article Title: Crop Residues Potential in Senegal: Proposed Valorisations.

Author(s): Cheikh Ahmadou Mbodji, Abdoulaye Seck.

Abstract
Different types of crops exist in Senegal, with different harvest periods throughout the year. Therefore, crop residues potential for valorisation to energy is high. However, most of these crop residues are not recycled; they are often burned or leftover in fields. This paper aims at assessing the potential of a number of crop residues available in Senegal, in terms of raw quantities and calorific values, in order to propose adequate valorisation schemes. A couple of available publications have been reviewed, as well as the databases of the national institutions. The results show the added value of these crop residues recycling to energy. It shows the importance of transforming these residues into pellets, and the intrinsic characteristics of these pellets. In the end, it is showed how these crop residues transformed into pellets can substitute part of the industries fossil fuels consumption for thermal processes, as well as being used for electricity production through gasification process.
Keywords
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Corresponding author Biography

Cheikh Ahmadou Mbodji

Renewable Energies Engineer & PhD student

Junior Energy Advisor at Practical Action (PAC) West Africa, which is the brand of PAC in UK, I am working as renewable energies engineer consultant. I am supporting all the consulting projects in West Africa region related to energies at PAC.

Previously, I have worked as consultant for SEnergyS Africa Company, on studying feasibility of different renewable energy projects in West Africa.

I am also pursuing my PhD on the thematic of gasification of crop residues in Senegal for electricity production.

I gained from my previous work expertise on feasibility study of energy projects, PV systems sizing, energetic audits and energy recovery from solid waste. My research interests revolve around renewable energies, sustainable development and new technologies.

Full profile available here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/cheikh-ahmadou-mbodji-827967136/

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Article Title: Experimental Study of a Multiple Jet Impingement Process for Industrial Applications.

Author(s): Flávia V. Barbosa, Senhorinha F. C. F. Teixeira, José Carlos F. Teixeira.

Abstract
Nowadays, product manufacturing faces a new challenge where loss of time and costs are unsustainable. Any competitive industrial sector must use scientific knowledge and cutting-edge technologies to obtain the best results and products in a short time. However, many industries that apply complex technological processes for product manufacturing, continue to use trial and error techniques for production lines optimization. In order to contribute for the development of the industrial sector and to overcome the lack between science and industry, this research focus on a widely implemented process, the multiple jet impingement. This is a complex convective heat transfer process, applied in several industrial applications such as, cooling of electronic components, propulsion and power-generation engines, food processing, heat treatment, among others. The main reason for the implementation of this convective process is related to the high average heat transfer coefficient over the target surface. However, the performance of the heat transfer through multiple jet impingement is governed by several process variables, from jets interactions (jet-to-plate distance, jet-to-jet spacing, etc.) to fluid flow parameters (Reynolds number, jet temperature) and geometry of the target surface. Due to the complexity of the interaction between jets, it is crucial to perform an in-depth study to understand the influence of these parameters on the heat transfer over the target plate, in order to define the best combination of variables that ensure the higher efficiency of the process. To conduct this research, an experimental study is performed in a proposed-build setup. Using a flexible apparatus that allows to change a vast range of geometrical and flow parameters, and the Particle Image Velocimetry technique to measure the velocity field of the flow, combined with a heat flow sensor to measure the heat transfer over the target plate, a complete and detailed research is conducted. The experiments enable the definition of more realistic boundary conditions that can be implemented in turbulence models for the thermal simulation of multiple air jet impingement. Performing a detailed characterization of the jet impingement, an optimization of the process can be performed before the product manufacturing, avoiding several issues in the initial phase of the project, ensuring the best efficiency of the process, minimizing product defects, energy consumption and wastes, leading to a decrease of time and costs. With this experimental work, it is expected to generate new scientific knowledge in the jet impingement field, providing information that can be usefull for the optimization of the process of several highly competitive industrial sectors.
Keywords
Jet Impingement; Heat Transfer; Experiments; PIV.
Corresponding author Biography
Flávia Vieira Barbosa is a PhD student at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of Minho, Portugal. She received her Master degree in Mechanical Engineering from the School of Engineering of University of Minho in 2015. She is currently a PhD student of MIT Portugal Program working on her PhD thesis in the Energy and Fluids Laboratory.

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Article Title: Generalization of the Rasmussen-Leveson-Johansson’s Nonlinear Accident Model for Safety and Resilience Analysis of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure.

Author(s): Igor A. Kirillov, Vladimir A. Panteleev, Natalia L. Kharitonova, Vadim A. Simonenko, Nikolai N. Ponomare-Stepnoy.

Abstract
Risk reduction of the hypothetical cascade and systemic accidents in critical asests of interdependent lifeline networks via their resilience enhancement is one of the perspective means for integrated safety provision for hydrogen energy insfrastructure. An extension of the nonlinear model of Rasmussen-Leveson-Johansson for the cascade accidents is proposed. Extended model is aimed to treat explicitly the behavioural (process) aspects of the interaction of the lifelines besides the structural and functional ones.
Keywords
hydrogen energy, infrastructure, lifeline networks, interdependent, critical nodes, cascade accidents, non-linear model, “structure-behaviour-function” viewpoint.
Corresponding author Biography
Dr. Igor A. Kirillov is a leading researcher in Theory and Modeling Lab at National Research Centre “Kurchatv Institute” (Moscow, Russia). In 1982 he graduated with Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering (summa cum laude) from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technologies, where obtained also his PhD degree in Plasma Physcis and Chemistry in 1985. Igor has more then 31 years of R&D experience at National Research Center Kurchatov Institute in theory development, analytic and computational models development, numerical simulations of the physico-chemical processes and systems, risk-informed and performance-based safety provision in different applications - nuclear engineering, industrial safety, civil engineering, hydrogen energy. He managed over 25+ successful contract R&D projects for the industrial and governmental customers from USA, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Germany, France and Sweden, including international companies, national (oversees) companies, research institutes.

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Article Title: A Systems Safety Approach to Management of Safety Critical Defence Systems.

Author(s): Chitra Rajagopal, ILA Chauhan and Indra Deo Kumar.

Abstract

Accidents and loss events occur due to a complex combination of individual, technical and organizational factors.A systematic approach to safety is required to address such accidents or loss events, by considering the dynamic interaction between all relevant components of the man-machine system – individual (viz. knowledge, thoughts, decisions, actions), technical (viz. technology, tools, equipment) and organizational (viz. management systems, organizational structure, governance, resources).Accidents in Defence systems happen due to the realization of hazards such as thermal, fire, high pressure, high voltage, explosions, radiation etc. and often result in unacceptable consequences in terms of human loss, property and environmental damage.

Safety management plays an important role in bringing down the frequency and consequences of such accidentsso as to meet acceptable risk levels. This paper highlights the applications of System Safety Analysis Tools for Safety Management of Critical Defence Systems.

Humans are an essential part of the entire life cycle of any system, starting from the design, manufacturing, usage and disposal; as also essential components in the control chain. As such the study of Human Factors is essential in order to maximize the ability of a person or a team to correctly operate / maintain a product or a system, eliminate design induced impediments and errors thereby improving system safety and reliability

The application of Systems Safety Analysis tools along with the need for quantification of Human Errors and reliability for effective Safety Management of Defence Systems is discussed in this paper, along with the initiatives in the continuous development and absorption of technologies, processes, materials and assessment methodologies which can be leveraged to enhance safety.

Keywords
Human errors, Safety analysis tools, Safety Management, System Safety.
Corresponding author Biography
Ms ILA Chauhan obtained her MSc(Chemistry) and MPhil (Masters in Philosophy) degree in Chemistry from Indian Institute of Technology, Rookee, India in 2002 and 2003 respectively.She is presently working as Scientist’E’ in System Analysis and Modelling Cluster in DRDO. She has also contributed in the area of Solid Com posite propellants, Environment Safety, Eco-friendly, clean energy Technologies and is a recipient of Technology Development Award. She has participated /published papers in various national/international conferences.


Mr Indra Deo Kumar
 obtained his BTech (Electronics and Communication) from NIT Kurukshetra and MTech (Digital Systems) from MNNIT Allahabad, in 2000 and 2003 respectively. He is working as Scientist ‘E’ in System Analysis and System Safety division. He received DRDO AGNI Award for Excellence in Self-reliance in 2007 and DRDO Performance Excellence Award in 2009 for his contribution to ‘AD’ Programme and PRITHVI/ DHANUSH respectively. His significant contributions are in the area of missile system, guidance design, trajectory optimisation, modeling and simulation.

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Article Title: Physical-Chemical Evaluation and Thermal of Cassava Harvest Wastes for Application In Thermochemical Processes.

Author(s): Alyson da Luz Pereira Rodrigues and Glauber Cruz.

Abstract
The bioenergy generation from agroindustrial wastes has been discussed worldwide due to rising fossil fuel prices, in addition to the
requirement of environmental legislation to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This research investigated the thermal behavior from
cassava wastes (shells, stalks, leafs) under two atmospheres: combustion (oxidizing or synthetic air) and pyrolysis (inert or nitrogen) by
Thermal analysis (TG/DTG curves). Other experimental techniques such as X-Rays diffraction (XRD), ultimate (moisture, volatile
materials, fixed carbon and ash), proximate (carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur) and calorimetric analyzes (HHV/LHV),
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images) and Plasma-Coupled Induction Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) were applied for
the samples characterization. TG/DTG curves identified the main thermal degradation steps of the lignocellulosic materials, which
correspond to hemicelluloses (≈ 36%), cellulose (≈ 47%), lignin (≈ 12%) and ashes (≈ 5%) contents. Average values for moisture (≈ 10%),
ash (≈ 6.), volatiles (≈ 68%) and fixed carbon (≈ 16%) for three samples were obtained. By means of XRD was possible calculate the
Crystallinity Index (CI) for the biomass samples, which varied between 53 and 60%, confirming crystalline and amorphous regions.
Considering that metals can form various oxides and refractory carbonates, metal composition determination by ICP-OES identified the
main metallic and inorganic materials (K, Ca, Al and Fe) present in biomasses. SEM images revealed the main morphological and
structural differences among the samples, i.e., rough (shells), dense (stalks) and porous (leafs) structures. Therefore, cassava harvest wastes
presented to physical-chemical features similar to woody biomasses in relation to HHV, ultimate analysis, elemental composition, TG/DTG
curves and SEM images, making them strong candidates for using as fuel in thermal plants.
Keywords
bioenergy, combustion, cassava wastes, gaseous emissions, physical-chemical characterization.
Corresponding author Biography
Alyson da Luz Pereira Rodrigues was born in Itapecuru -Mirim/MA, Brazil, in 1993. Industrial Engineer (2017), Master in Environment (2018) from CEUMA University, Maranhão, Brazil, respectively. PhD candidate at Postgraduate Program Energy Systems Planning, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil. His research experience included simulation of discrete systems, utilization of different lignocellulosic materials for generation of bioenergy and / or biofuels and other sources of renewable energy (solar).

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Article Title: Energy potential of crop residues in Senegal: Pathways for valorisation.

Author(s): Cheikh Ahmadou Mbodji, Aminata Fall, Abdoulaye Seck, Djicknoum Diouf.

Abstract
Different crops are grown in season-cycle in Senegal, with different harvest periods throughout the year. Therefore, crop residues are constantly available, and potential for recycling to energy is high. However, most of these crop residues are not recycled; they are often burned or leftover in fields. This paper aims at assessing the energy potential of five crop residues available in Senegal, in terms of raw material quantities and calorific values, in order to propose adequate valorisation schemes. The methodology of the study is review of scientific literature in the area, treatment of data collected from the national specialized agencies, and experimental tests of pellets manufactured from these residues. The study novelty lies on its methodological approach that builds from results of previous studies on individual crops to propose a hybridization in pelleting. The results show feasibility of combining and transforming the residues into pellets, with interesting energy characteristics. We also show that pellets from crop residues can substitute part of the industries heat demand with combustion technology, and part of rural areas’ electricity demand with gasification technology.
Keywords
Crop recycling; Pellets; Biofuels; Gasification; Combustion; Energy transition.
Corresponding author Biography

Cheikh Ahmadou Mbodji

Renewable Energies Engineer & PhD candidate

Junior Energy Advisor at Practical Action (PAC) West Africa, which is a brand of Practical Action UK, I am specialized on renewable energies engineering. I support all PAC consultancy projects related to energy in West Africa region.

Previously, I worked as consultant for SEnergyS Africa Company, on studying feasibility of different renewable energy projects in West Africa.

Besides my work, I prepare a PhD thesis on the potential of crop residues for electricity production with gasification technology.

My areas of expertise include energy projects feasibility study, PV systems sizing, energy audits, and energy recovery from solid waste. My research interests revolve around renewable energies, sustainable development and information technologies.

Full profile available here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/cheikh-ahmadou-mbodji-827967136/.

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Article Title: Energy Performance Comparison Of Combined Heat And Power devices Fuelled With Hydrogen Enriched Natural Gas Blends.

Author(s): Shahrokh Barati,Livio De Santoli,Gianluigi Lo Basso.

Abstract
The transition from an energy system based on fossil fuels to the  renewable sources-based one is a necessity on which the world community agrees. clearly this transition cannot  be sudden, but it must take place necessarily through intermediate steps, where alternative sources must coexist with traditional ones up to the full replacement of fossil fuels. the hydrogen produced by means of renewable sources, has the advantage of being exploited through multiple pathways, given that it is an energy carrier. Indeed, it can be used either directly to generate power by fuel cell technolologys or in co-firing applications with several fossil fuels.This paper deals with the comparison of energy performance of different CHP  (Combined Heat and Power) technologies fueled with hydrogen and natural gas blend. The hydrogen enrichment in natural gas offers a high potential to achieve good carbon avoidance levels. mixtures can be burned in stationary applications like burners for boilers,Heat Pumps and CHP. The NG (Natural Gas) enriched hydrogen amounts can improve environmental and mechanical performances of  ICEs (internal combustion engines) and MGT(Micro Gas Turbine) as well. CHP technology can be adopted largely for industrial and civil sectors. Waiting for the cutting-edge appliances like fuel cell wide deployment, ICEs  fuelled with an environmentally-friendly fuel, such as H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) could represent the bridge technology towards the forthcoming pure hydrogen economy.The data resulting by the experimental campaign carried out over two months on a commercial CHP fuelled with hydrogen enriched Natural gas  blends. In order to evaluate the CHP energy consumption and energy performance. this paper illustrated electrical efficiency and heat recovery efficiency in differnet percentages of hydrogen is add started from  0%, up to 15%. Their outputs provided the condensation efficiency value and the absolute gain of heat recovery one with varying exhaust gas temperatures and hydrogen fraction in the mixture.
Keywords
Combine heat and power, natural gas and hydrogen blends,Micro Gas Turbine,CHP

.

Corresponding author Biography
Shahrokh Barati was born in Tehran, Iran, in 1987. He received the BC. degree in Electrical Engineering-Power and M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering- Control System. In 2018, he joined the Department of Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Sapienza, Rome, Italy as a PhD student Energy and Environmental.

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Article Title: Synchrophasors based Communication Systems for MV Distribution Network.

Author(s): Mohammad Kamrul Hasan, Musse Mohamud Ahmed, Shayla Islam, Aisha Hassan Abdalla.

Abstract
The evolution of the smart grid for distribution networks is remarkable progress to deem and cope the significant uncertainties in power supply.  This progress is included the most sophisticated distribution systems and resources, wire and wireless communication devices and its networks, storages and control units. This is to enhance the distribution network monitoring, measurement accuracy, data granularity and protection.  However, the advancement still imposes new challenges on existing distribution network and its infrastructure. Therefore, the distribution system necessitates coping the challenges of its communication infrastructure in order to monitor, measure the accuracy and manage distribution networks in an efficient manner.  Designing a holistic communication infrastructure for medium voltage (MV) distribution network is always, challenging to maintain the sustainability without blackouts in smart grid systems. This article discusses the significant advanced techniques and methods of the distribution communication systems that achieves the real-time precise measurement, control and monitor. This study includes the phasor measurement devices and its synchronous measurement techniques of voltage phase angles, or synchrophasors. A simulation analysis is also discussed to validate the performance of the systems.
Keywords
Phasor measurement; Synchronization; communication system; smart grid applications.
Corresponding author Biography
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Article Title: Diversity of microalgae as potential source of biomolecules including biofuel from West Bengal , India.

Author(s): PRASANTA MALLICK.

Abstract

West Bengal is the state of India in eastern part , which has great  algal diversity especially in freshwater. I have been working on the field of microalgal diversity in West Bengal.I have been collected number of  micro algal samles which has great contribution as the potential source of biofuel and other valuable biomolecules. Today we are searching alternative source of energy especially in fossil fuel. Microalgae are the most important source for the production of biofuel, most important groups are Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Euglenophyceaeand  also include Cyanophyceae..

Present study deals with the fresh water microalgal diversity belongs to Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Euglenophyceae and also include Cyanophyceae. Most important genera are Scenedesmus,Nitzschia, Spirulina ,Scytonema ,Gloeocapsa, Rivularia, Aphanothece etc. Scenedesmus showed the highest amount of oleic acid and high lipid content. High lipid productivity is a very diserablecharacteristics of a taxa for biodiesel production. Nitzschiais  alsocontent high lipid and  potential bio accumulator of metal. Others genera have potential source of importantbiomolecules.Chemical nature of the biomolecule substances is very diverse, its includes fatty acids, polysaccharide, alkaloids and many more.Microalgae are the promising alternative source of biomoleculesproduction. To fulfill our global needs much more attention still require for the field of microalgal research.

Keywords
Diversity , microalgae , potential biomolecules-biofuel ,West Bengal.
Corresponding author Biography
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Article Title: The energy recovery of internal combustion engines exhaust gases through a hybrid turbocharger.

Author(s): Rares-Lucian Chiriac, Anghel Chiru.

Abstract
Internal combustion engines have a great potencial to increase its performance. The analysis of the energy balance of the internal combustion engine shows that there is an important reserve of exhaust gas energy, which can be capitalized. Part of the residual gases can be recovered through the technical solutions such as hybrid turbocharging. The hybrid turbocharger has two purposes: to produce compressed air for the engine but also green electrical energy. The compressor wheel is connected in series to an electric generator. This article aims is to present the result of the experimental work of the hybrid turbocharger, simulate and validate the new solutions for increasing the energy performance of internal combustion engines through hybrid turbochargers using a coupled electric generator. The simulations will be made using the Amesim Sofware developed by Siemens. The second purpose of the article is to compare the obtained powers of the internal combustion engine equipped with classic turbocharger and equipped with hybrid turbocharger.
Keywords
Energy, internal combustion engines , hybrid turbocharger, electric generator, green energy, Amesim Software.
Corresponding author Biography
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Article Title: Thermal Performance of New Design Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Heat Flow as a Gas Boiler Modeling.

Author(s): Siamak Hoseinzadeh and Stephan Heyns.

Abstract
In this paper, a new design of heat exchanger that can be used as a gas boiler investigated. The heat transfer is done with a combination of convection and radiation plus blowing. The equations solved by using finite volume method (FIM) and the numerical results are compared with experimental data. The effects of the geometric parameters include cold channel width; hot channel width, air intake gaps considered, and thermal performance, dimensionless temperature differences, and heat transfer of flow are studied with ANSYS software. The results show that there is a backflow of combustion products out of the air slots and the pressure of combustion products increased in the channel. Additionally, the size of the fresh air must be about 3mm to provide fresh air to complete combustion and creating enough space between the higher flames and the combustion products of the low flames.
Keywords
Combined heat transfer; Combustion products; Heat exchanger designing; Radiation; Turbulent flow.
Corresponding author Biography
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Corresponding Author 


Article Title: Assessing the Electricity Storage for Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia.

Author(s): M. H. Shwehdi and Gafar ElAmin.

Abstract
The ministry of water and electricity of Saudi Arabia (MOWE) is undertaking research studies and assessments for the optimal selection of renewable energy storage systems to be used with power plants. A comprehensive survey of the renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia is presented in this paper. A review of the global electricity storage systems has been conducted to select the best storage system to be implemented with the new establishment of many solar and wind plants in the Kingdom. The study aims to suggest the best storage systems that can be used to store the power generated from renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia. Even though, the survey covered all the available energy storage technologies, only the mature well-developed storage technologies are presented in this paper. Recommendations were made for the best technologies to be used to store electricity produced from renewable energy in Saudi Arabia.
Keywords
Electricity Cost, Emission Reduction, Energy Storage, Renewable Energy.
Corresponding author Biography
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Corresponding Author 


Article Title: Efficient interactions between low embodied building materials, architectonic choices and CO2 emissions.

Author(s): Elzbieta RYNSKA, Michal Pierzchalski.

Abstract

The existence of buildings as such, involves a significant use of energy and natural resources, and as a consequence, a negative effect of the entire building sector on the natural environment (European Commission, b.r.; Bayer, Gamble, Gentry, et al., 2010; Antink, Garrigan, Bonetti, et al., 2014). The consumption of energy occurs primarily during the building’s use - energy is used for heating, preparing domestic hot water, as well as powering the appliances and lighting inside the building.

Commonly applied measures of improving the energy efficiency of buildings focus on, before everything else, the use of effective thermal insulation in exterior partitions (most often by increasing the thickness of the insulation), using windows with better parameters, or additional appliances (e.g. mechanical ventilation with heat recovery). These measures are usually linked with an increase in embodied energy and a higher use of resources, as well as, increased greenhouse gas and other harmful substances emissions (Bayer, Gamble, Gentry, et al., 2010).

Designing a low-energy and ecological building requires performing simulations and analyses, which include the building’s entire life cycle (that is from resources acquisition, transport, production and assembly of materials, use, renovation, and demolition). One of the methods of evaluating the effect of products and processes on the environment over the course of the entire existence cycle is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 

The topic of this paper will concentrate on  the procedures and analysis allowing development of a simple method for the ecological analysis of small buildings. The information collected was used to calculate CO2 emissions and embodied energy for a couple of alternative solutions. The results and energy performance simulations of the buildings use served as the basis for analysis and final guidelines concerning optimization of single family building volumes, including  summary conclusions describing how architectonic measures used within the  building design process can influence pro-environmental effects.

Keywords
Low Energy single dwellings, environment, carbon footprint, embodied energy, LCA.
Corresponding author Biography
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Corresponding Author 


Article Title: Physico-Chemical Analysis of Laguna de Bay Water Quality using the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index Method.

Author(s): Dr. Daniel D. Dasig Jr, Dr. Eleonora E. Claricia.

Abstract
Today, revolutionary systems have surfaced in the energy and renewable energy sector including wind turbines, solar panels, and carbon-free technologies such as evaporation engines from rivers and lakes. Lakes and river systems are major sources of renewable energy, and energy provisioning however, due to the changing landscapes of population growth, urbanization, industrialization, and other human activities, the beneficial uses of water have substantially impaired due to eutrophication and other global phenomena related to water. This phenomenon impacts and results in changes in pH and oxygen content, and derails the water quality as a global concern, hence, water quality impedes and alters hydrologic cycle. This paper presents the Q-values of water quality parameters of Laguna de Bay with a freshwater surface area of 911–949 km², the largest lake in the Philippines and its 21 major tributary rivers. Laguna de Bay is one of the region's sources of irrigation, industrial cooling water, transport route and hydroelectric power generation. The water quality was determined using the 2-year data Q-values of Total Coliform, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Nitrate, Phosphate, and pH values were compared with the water quality standards of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index Method. Based on the findings, the average Water Quality Indices of Laguna de Bay’s different sections and tributary rivers are 51.83 and 51.44 for the years 2016 and 2017 respectively. These results imply that Laguna de Bay has a Medium Water Quality Index rating based on NSF standards and that Laguna de Bay and its tributaries can only support low-diversity marine and aquatic life, and there is water pollution. Further studies could be done to explore and investigate Laguna de Bay water quality using the 9 parameters, hence, environmentalists and advocates, government and other sectors should venture into collaborative works to remediate the lake and river systems such as bioremediation, and participatory policy development and enforcement.
Keywords
Renewable energy, lake and rivers, Laguna lake, water quality, water quality index method.
Corresponding author Biography
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